Implementing Agreement: Technology Collaboration Programme on Co-operation on Tokamak Programmes

Year: 2016

Chair: Richard Pitts (richard.pitts@iter.org)

ExCo Secretary: Duarte Borba (duarte.borba@euro-fusion.org)

 

Highlights of experiments or analysis during the year

FUSION SCIENCE

Physics

Briefly mention here the gaps or barriers the IA is seeking to address relating to physics. If none, enter N/A.

 

The main physics gaps for achieving fusion energy relate to the sustainment of high gain burning plasmas, including plasma control, long duration and heat exhaust. In striving to integrate foundational burning plasma science with the science and technology of long pulse and sustained operation, ITER is the keystone in addressing these issues.

 

Include here highlights (the most important or significant results) from among all the experiments and/or analysis for this area carried out during the year.

 

NSTX-U (United States) has undergone a major upgrade and will have substantially increased reactor relevance. This multi-year upgrade project was completed at the end of 2015 and will provide a national user facility with significantly enhanced capabilities. In 2016, initial operations progressed rapidly, but then challenges emerged and problems were found in some of the upgraded components.

 

MAST (UK) is undergoing a major upgrade for the installation of the innovative configuration (Super-X divertor) and operations are expected in 2017.

 

The DIII-D (United States) 3D-Coil power supplies and all subsystems provided by ASIPP (China) were installed in 2016. The 3D System includes Power Supplies, stepdown transformer, 13.8 kV switchgear and cabling, patch panel and cabling. All connections, interfaces and data acquisition systems have been tested. A modest upper divertor change was completed in 2016 and will allow for tests of a wide range of divertor closures without affecting advanced tokamak operation. Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) Edge Localized Mode (ELM) suppression was extended to lower shaping, matching the intermediate triangularity of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas.

 

Alcator C-Mod (United States) attained a new tokamak World Record for volume average pressure (2.05 atm). After 24 years of producing influential physics results, the facility ceased operations in 2016. The facility is now being shut down, with no further operations planned.

 

Remote third shift operation and the remote execution of experiments on EAST (China) were developed and carried out successfully by General Atomics staff (United States). Staff communication and EAST data transfer to the US were very good, without significant impact to the General Atomics staff or added cost from EAST (China) schedule changes.

 

The European fusion programme, focusing on the support of ITER construction and optimization of ITER operation and risk mitigation for ITER has been enhanced by performing joint collaborative supporting research in the existing European devices. These include JET, ASDEX-Upgrade (Germany), TCV (Switzerland) which restarted operation in 2016 after a long upgrade, MAST-Upgrade (United Kingdom) which will begin operation in 2017, and participation in the JT-60 Super Advanced (JT60-SA) tokamak (Japan), currently under construction. The European tokamak programme is now integrated to address these objectives and the JET and Medium Size Tokamak (MST) Task Force Leaders draft annually a common experimental programme to implement on each device.

 

Development of ITER Baseline operation continued on JET by extending this regime to 30 MW of auxiliary power, plasma current to 3 MA and magnetic field to 2.7 Tesla. Similar performance in baseline and hybrid scenarios was obtained, but via different routes; in the baseline scenario using high current, high confinement and broad profiles and in the hybrid scenario through moderate current, high confinement and peaked profiles. Confinement investigations in JET hydrogen ELMy H-mode plasmas across the full range of H/(H+D) have found a mass scaling stronger than predicted by the IPB98 scaling.

 

Helium campaigns on ASDEX Upgrade, in preparation for ITER, have performed Ion Cyclotron Wall Cleaning discharges and obtained Type I ELMs with high pedestal pressures. RMP ELM control was successfully transferred from D to He; tungsten materials were not modified or damaged and no net erosion at the divertor or nanostructure growth/erosion was observed. The application of RMPs before a disruption can suppress runaway electron generation. Varying the relative phase between the upper and lower ELM control coils changes the alignment of the perturbation with the field line and the runaway electron current is reduced when the perturbation is well aligned at the q=4 surface.

 

TCV (Switzerland) Snowflake divertor experiments confirmed the radiation trapping in nitrogen seeded discharges predicted by edge fluid modelling which suggested that the nitrogen radiation would be trapped between the primary and secondary X-points.

 

A hot wall has operated since 2014 on the QUEST device (Japan) and local Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) start-up was achieved. A 1 hour 55 minute pulse was obtained in a limiter configuration with 40 kW of auxiliary power.

 

The construction of JT-60SA (Japan) is proceeding steadily and is on schedule for first plasma in early 2019. Welding of 340 of the vacuum vessel (VV) and installation of the vessel Thermal Shield was completed in 2016, with installation of the toroidal field coils underway (three coils now delivered to the Naka site). Manufacturing of the poloidal field coils was successfully completed with very high accuracy. The JT-60SA Research Plan Ver. 3.3 was documented in March 2016 with 378 co-authors. The installation of a full metal wall in JT60-SA from 2028, in direct support of ITER operation, is under investigation.

 

The SST-1 Tokamak (India) is now operational with the integration of various heating systems and first wall components. Initial experiments on SST-1, are in progress. Electron Cyclotron Heating pre-ionization assisted SST-1 ohmic plasmas with current above 110 kA with magnetic field of 1.5 Tesla and electron temperature between 200 and 250 eV have now been achieved. An upgrade to the ADITYA tokamak (India) has been completed in March 2016, transforming the device from a limiter to a divertor tokamak. The TF coil assembly has been tested at 1.4 Tesla, the ohmic coil assembly at 12.5 kA, and the vertical coil assembly at 3 kA. First plasma was achieved in December 2016. Planned Experiments in ADITYA Upgrade include confinement scaling experiments in circular and shaped plasmas, plasma shaping experiments and heat load measurements on limiter and divertor plates.

 

In the last two years, EAST (China) has upgraded its capabilities, with the main aim being long pulse (steady state), high performance operation on an ITER-relevant, fully water-cooled tungsten divertor. 60 second long pulse H-mode discharges were obtained, with pure Radio Frequency (ICRH) heating, good confinement and with good control of impurity levels assisted by RMPs and Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating. The divertor heat flux was mostly controlled below 3 MWm-2. ELM suppression in a 20 second pulse was realised with small effect on plasma performance using RMPs with optimised spectrum. A clear pump-out effect on tungsten , which is helpful for sustaining the long pulse high performance, compatible with long-pulse ICRH heated H-mode plasmas was observed. ELM pacing with Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) modulation was studied in EAST and an LHCD-induced flattening of the density profile near the separatrix and pedestal density pump-out has been observed. Vacuum-field modeling of the LHCD-induced 3D magnetic topology change indicates that the flat-density-profile region and its radial width expansion are largely consistent with those of the LHCD-induced edge stochastic magnetic field layer, which may explain the observed density profile change, similar to the effect of RMPs.

 

ELM mitigation by applying n=1 RMPs was first obtained in recent HL-2A (China) experiments. The ELM frequency increases by a factor 2, correlated with density pump-out. ELM mitigation by Laser Blow Off (LOB)-seeded impurities has also been performed recently. Pedestal turbulence was enhanced during mitigation and the impurities mainly deposited at the pedestal top. Runaway current caused by argon injection with Massive Gas Injection (MGI) was successfully suppressed by supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI). A toroidal alfvn eignmode (TAE) was observed during the disruption, which plays a favorable role in scattering runaway electrons, limiting the strength of the runaway beam. The observation of two different critical gradients for trigging electromagnetic turbulence is believed to play a key role in cyclic H-I transitions. In the positive gradient the mode is driven by impurity density gradient and in the negative gradient driven both by impurity and electron density gradients.

 

Advances towards steady state operation in KSTAR (South Korea) led to long-pulse H-mode discharges up to 70 seconds, with a plasma current of 0.45 MA and reliable operation of the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) at 5 MW and of Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive systems (105/140 GHz) at 1 MW. High current H-mode discharges have been extended to up to 1 MA for 20 seconds, with the goal of achieving 2 MA (the KSTAR design value) in the future. A stationary discharge with an Internal Transport Barrier has been extended up to 7 seconds. Long pulse ELM crash suppression using low-n error fields has also been achieved. Strike point splitting is much clearer during the ELM suppression. Intentionally misaligned Resonant Magnetic Perturbations configurations would spread the divertor heat fluxes in a wider area.

 

ITER construction has advanced significantly and the facility is now taking shape at St-Paul-lez-Durance, where construction of the major buildings is advancing rapidly. Supported by impressive achievements in fusion technology R&D, manufacturing of major ITER components, such as superconducting magnet systems, vacuum vessel and cryostat, is in full swing. Substantial progress has also been achieved in prototyping and R&D activities in areas such as plasma-facing components (PFC), in-vessel coils, heating and current drive systems, remote handling and power supplies in preparation for manufacturing. A wide-ranging physics R&D programme, covered in many cases by the TCP-CTP, is addressing key issues impacting the finalization of the ITER design and preparations for operation. A new baseline for Project construction and operation has been developed throughout 2016, featuring a first plasma date in late 2025 and revised operating schedule through to fusion power operation beginning in 2036. A revised Research Plan, consistent with the new schedule is now being prepared, with the support of the fusion physics research community and incorporating new advances in physics understanding achieved in part thanks to TCP-CTP joint activities.

 

Materials

Briefly mention here the gaps or barriers the IA is seeking to address materials. If none, enter N/A.

 

The main gaps for achieving fusion energy include the development of materials and components resistant to high heat fluxes and neutron fluence.

Include here highlights (the most important or significant results) from among all the experiments and/or analysis for this area carried out during the year.

 

Technologies

Briefly mention here the gaps or barriers the IA is seeking to address materials. If none, enter N/A.

 

The main gaps for developing fusion energy include the required technologies for achieving Tritium self-sufficiency with efficient breeding and extraction techniques.

Include here highlights (the most important or significant results) from among all the experiments and/or analysis for this area carried out during the year.

 

In order to ensure minimal delay in developing DEMO, a conceptual design System Engineering Approach have been adopted in Europe in order to address universal technical challenges with the gaps beyond ITER, which include safety, tritium-breeding, power exhaust, remote handling, component lifetime and plant availability.

 

In China, the development of a roadmap for fusion energy foresees the construction of the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), a superconducting-tokamak aiming at the achievement of steady state burning plasma operation, with efficient breeding blanket and advanced tritium technology to achieve tritium self-sustainment. Fully non-inductive CFETR scenarios have been developed with a self-consistent core-pedestal-equilibrium model. The new larger CFETR reduces heating and current drive requirements, lower divertor heat flux and neutron wall loading, higher bootstrap current fraction and H98y2 at similar βN. The higher βN~3.2 Phase II configuration requires a close conducting wall for n = 1,2 ideal stability but for Phase this not required.

 

The Indian fusion programme roadmap foresees the possibility of constructing a Fusion Experiment SST-2 aiming at a fusion power of 100 MW, together with the development of Liquid Lithium Cooled Blanket concept with Pb-Li breeder, breeder coolant and multiplier, helium first wall coolant, EUROFER like structure material and aluminum oxide insulator.

 

In Korea, the major facilities for K-DEMO development include the Plasma Material Interaction facility at Chonbuk University, a 2.4 MW High-Temperature plasma torch and a neutron irradiation material test Facility. Blanket, first wall, divertor and material tests were performed at KAERI (Korea), together with the collaborative development for the ITER Test Blanket Module as a breeding blanket for a Fusion Reactor.

 

Modelling/analytics

Briefly mention here the gaps or barriers the IA is seeking to address modelling or analytics. If none, enter N/A.

 

The main gaps for achieving fusion energy include understanding and developing modeling capabilities of the fundamentals of plasma transport, macro-stability, wave-particle physics and plasma-wall interaction.

Include here highlights (the most important or significant results) from among all the experiments and/or analysis for this area carried out during the year.

 

A great deal of modelling is carried out for ITER amongst the CTP partners, far too numerous to mention here. Only a few examples have been selected.

 

 

 

Outcomes during the year

Workshops

List here the workshops organised during the year under the auspices of the IA.

 

- 3rd IEA Theory and Simulation of Disruptions Workshop, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, New Jersey July 20-22, 2016, 2015 http://tsdw.pppl.gov/

- KSTAR Conference 2016 February 24th to 26th, 2016, Daejeon Convention Center, Daejeon, Korea

 

Annex/task meetings

List here the annex or task meetings held during the year organised by the IA.

 

This TCP has no annexes or associated Tasks.

 

Publications / Scientific journal articles

List here the publications drafted and/or finalized and made public during the year resulting from the collaboration in the IA.

 

- Multi-device studies of pedestal physics and confinement in the I-mode regime, A.E. Hubbard, Nuclear Fusion

- Maximization of ICRF power by SOL density tailoring with local gas injection, P. Jacquet, Nuclear Fusion

- Multi-machine scaling of the main SOL parallel heat flux width in tokamak limiter plasmas, J. Horacek, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

- Physics conclusions in support of ITER W divertor monoblock shaping , R. A. Pitts, Nuclear Materials and Energy

- Multi-device studies of pedestal physics and confinement in the I-mode regime, A.E. Hubbard, Nuclear Fusion

- Benchmarking the GENE and GYRO codes through the relative roles of electromagnetic and E    B stabilization in JET high-performance discharges, R. Bravenec, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion

- Validating predictive models for fast ion profile relaxation in burning plasmas, NN Gorelenkov, Nuclear Fusion

- High magnetic field test of bismuth Hall sensors for ITER steady state magnetic diagnostic, I. Ďuran, Review of Scientific Instruments

- Conceptual design of the ITER fast-ion loss detector, M. Garcia-Munoz, Review of Scientific Instruments

Stokes-Doppler coherence imaging for ITER boundary tomography, J. Howard, Review of Scientific Instruments

- First results on modeling of ITER infrared images, M Kočan, Physica Scripta

- Impact of reflections on the divertor and first wall temperature measurements from ITER Infrared Imaging System, M-H Aumeunier, Nuclear Materials and Energy

- Final design of the ITER outer vessel steady-state magnetic sensors, M. Kocan, Fusion Engineering and Design

- Signal processing for the extreme environment Hall sensors. S. Entler Fusion Engineering and Design

- Development of Bismuth Hall sensors for ITER steady state magnetic diagnostics, I. Duran, Fusion Engineering and Design

- Bench testing of a heterodyne CO2 laser dispersion interferometer for high temporal resolution plasma density measurements, T. Akiyama, Review of Scientific Instruments

- Design of a dispersion interferometer combined with a polarimeter to increase the electron density measurement reliability on ITER, T. Akiyama, Review of Scientific Instruments

- Experimental simulation of the behaviour of diagnostic first mirrors fabricated of different metals for ITER conditions, V.S. Voitsenya, Open Physics Journal

- Image quality method as a possible way of in situ monitoring of in-vessel mirrors in a fusion reactor, V. G. Konovalov, Review of Scientific Instruments

- On the Prospects of Using Metallic Glasses for In-vessel Mirrors for Plasma Diagnostics in ITER, V. S. Voitsenya, Metallic Glasses - Formation and Properties, Chapter 7, Behrooz Movahedi (Ed.), Intech, ISBN 978-953-51-2511-2

- ITER first mirror mock-ups exposed in Magnum-PSI. , L. Marot, Nuclear Fusion

Plasma cleaning of Be coated mirrors, L. Moser, Physica Scripta

- ITER perspective on fusion reactor diagnostics - A spectroscopic view, MFM De Bock, Journal of Instrumentation

- Engineering estimates of impurity fluxes on the ITER port plugs, V. Kotov, Nucl. Fusion

 

 

Current annexes, tasks or other activities during the year

Ref. and Name

Objectives

Participants

Milestones during the year

 

This Implementing Agreement has no annexes or associated Tasks.

 

 

 


 

Co-operation with other fusion collaborative groups

Workshops

Include here information relative to co-operation (experiments, research, publications or activities) with other international collaborations relating to fusion (e.g. IAs, ITER, ITPA, IFMIF, IAEA, IFMIF or others).

 

Coordination with the ITPA involves mainly the planning and implementation of joint experiments on multiple devices with prescribed parameter ranges and conditions in order to investigate specific high-priority physics issues for the ITER project and DEMO concepts that would benefit from comparative studies. Since these can only be carried out internationally, the CTP-IA has provided valuable opportunities for its Contracting Parties. These activities have been coordinated during the following workshops and meetings:

 

- 7th International Tokamak Physics Activities (ITPA) Joint Experiments Workshop (JEX), 6-8 December 2016, ITER Council Room, ITER Headquarters 72/5010

- 18th Meeting of the ITPA Coordinating Committee, CTP-ITPA JEX Planning Meeting, 6-8 December 2016, ITER Council Room, ITER Headquarters 72/5010

 

 

Participation

 

New Contracting Parties

Include here decisions or actions concerning possible new participants (e.g. ExCo vote, formal letters, signature).

 

Participation of ITER China Domestic Agency (CNDA) as a Contracting Party in the CTP IA became effective as of 16 January 2013.

 

Participation of ITER as a Contracting Party in the CTP IA became effective as of 20 October 2012.

 

Participation of the Institute for Plasma Research, India, in this Agreement became effective as of 11 April 2011.

 

Participation of the Government of Korea as a Contracting Party in this Agreement became effective as of 5 February 2010

 

Russia was invited to become a member of CTP-IA according to the decision made at the CTP-IA CC meeting in 2010

 

IEA TCP-CTP Executive Committee agreed to the invitation of Australia to join the IEA TCP-CTP in 2016

 

the IEA TCP-CTP Executive Committee recognised once more the importance of Russia as a major partner in the ongoing collaborations and agreed that the outgoing Chair prepares a new letter of invitation to Russia to join the IEA TCP-CTP addressed to the Kurchatov institute in 2016

 

 

Current Contracting Parties

Include here ExCo decisions or actions concerning existing participants (e.g. no longer participates, seeking alternates).

 

- European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), European Union

- Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Japan

- United States Department Of Energy (USDOE), United States

- The Korean Ministry of Education, Science And Technology (MEST), Korea.

- The Institute For Plasma Research (IPR), India.

- ITER International Organization

- ITER China Domestic Agency (CNDA)

 

 

 

Current ExCo participants

CHAIR Name: Richard Pitts, Organisation: ITER-IO, Country: ITER-IO, Email: Richard .Pitts@iter.org,

Name: Remmelt Haange, Organisation: ITER-IO, Country: ITER-IO, Email: rem.haange@iter.org,

Name: Alexander Alekseev, Organisation: ITER-IO, Country: ITER-IO, Email: alexander.alekseev@iter.org,

Name: David Campbell, Organisation: ITER-IO, Country: ITER-IO, Email: david.campbell@iter.org,

Name: Guenter Janeschitz, Organisation: ITER-IO, Country: ITER-IO, Email: guenter.janeschitz@iter.org,

Name: Mario Merola, Organisation: ITER-IO, Country: ITER-IO, Email: mario.merola@iter.org,

Name: Tony Donn, Organisation: EUROfusion, Country: EU, Email: Tony.Donne@euro-fusion.org,

Name: Lars-Gran Eriksson, Organisation: European Commission, Country: EU,Email: lars-goran.eriksson@ec.europa.eu,

Name: Duarte Borba, Organisation: EUROfusion, Country: EU, Email: Duarte.Borba@euro-fusion.org,

Name: Hartmut Zohm, Organisation: IPP, Country: EU, Email: hartmut.zohm@ipp.mpg.de,

Name: Xavier Litaudon, Organisation: EUROfusion, Country: EU, Email: Xavier.Litaudon@euro-fusion.org,

Name: Predhiman Krishan, Organisation: IPR, Country: India, Email: kaw@ipr.res.in,

Name: R. Jha, Organisation: IPR, Country: India, Email: rjha@ipr.res.in,

Name: Takaaki Fujita, Organisation: JAEA, Country: Japan, Email: fujita.takaaki@jaea.go.jp,

Name: Yutaka Kamada, Organisation: JAEA, Country: Japan, Email: kamada.yutaka@jaea.go.jp,

Name: Shunsuke Ide, Organisation: JAEA, Country: Japan, Email: Shunsuke.Ide@jaea.go.jp,

Name: Yoshihiko Koid, Organisation: JAEA, Country: Japan, Email: koide.yoshihiko@jaea.go.jp,

Name: Kouji Shinohara, Organisation: JAEA, Country: Japan, Email: shinohara.koji@jaea.go.jp,

Name: Naoyuki Oyama, Organisation: JAEA, Country: Japan, Email: oyama.naoyuki@jaea.go.jp,

Name: Jong-Gu Kwak, Organisation: NFRI, Country: Korea, Email: jgkwak@nfri.re.kr,

Name: Yeong-Kook Oh, Organisation: NFRI, Country: Korea, Email: ykoh@nfri.re.kr,

Name: Jin-Yong Kim, Organisation: NFRI, Country: Korea, Email: jykim@nfri.re.kr,

Name: Siwoo Yoon, Organisation: NFRI, Country: Korea, Email: swyoon@nfri.re.kr,

Name: Luo Delong, Organisation: ITER-China, Country: China, Email: luodl@iterchina.cn,

Name: He Kaihui, Organisation: ITER-China, Country: China, Email: hekh@iterchina.cn,

Name: John Mandrekas, Organisation: DOE, Country: US, Email: John.Mandrekas@science.doe.gov,

Name: Rich Hawryluk, Organisation: DOE, Country: US, Email: rhawrylu@pppl.gov,

Name: Charles Greenfield, Organisation: DOE, Country: US, Email: greenfield@fusion.gat.com,

Name: Dave Hill, Organisation: DOE, Country: US, Email: hilldn@fusion.gat.com,

Name: Earl Marmar, Organisation: DOE, Country: US, Email: marmar@psfc.mit.edu,

Current Annex or Task participants

Insert here the names and contact details of participants in the Annex or Task (and sub-task if/as necessary).

 

This Implementing Agreement has no annexes or associated Tasks.